It’s cause that is common all lesbians face some amount of stigma, discrimination and physical violence because of their transgressing hegemonic sex and sex norms. But, the amount of the vulnerability to discrimination and violence varies based on competition, class, sex performance, age and location, amongst other facets. Mirroring the literary works up to a big level, the lesbian narratives in this research concur that black colored, butch presenting, poorer, township dwelling lesbians had been at greater chance of experiencing stigma, discrimination and physical violence centered on sex and sex. It is as a result of the compound effect of misogynoir 5 (Moya BAILEY, 2010, 2013) and patriarchal heteronormativities (Scott LONGER et al., 2003; Nonhlanhla MKHIZE et al., 2010; Eileen RICH, 2006).
Bella, a black, self-identified lesbian that is femme the Eastern Cape life in the home that she has in Khayelitsha, a black township regarding the Cape Flats, along with her partner, three kiddies and cousin. Her perceptions of just exactly exactly exactly what it really is prefer to reside being a lesbian that is black Khayelitsha are illustrative of exactly exactly just how townships are usually regarded as being heteronormative, unsafe, unwanted areas for black colored lesbians and gender non-conforming women:
Khayelitsha while the other townships … need to complete one thing to create the audience right right straight back because truthfully, around where I stay there is not one area where we might, ja, where we could for instance hold your partner’s hand, kiss at you funny if you want to without people looking. … And of program places like Dez, that you simply understand is really a homosexual friendly room, and individuals get there and be who they really are. But you can find places for which you can not also arrive dressed up in your favourite ‘boyfriend jeans’, as Woolworths calls it, you realize. Which means you feel more at ease out from the area than. Well, i will be fundamentally. I am so much more comfortable being with this region of the railway line (pointing to your southern suburbs), where I’m able to hold my girl, she holds me personally, you realize, and hug and, well, sometimes hugging during the taxi rank is certainly not this kind of big deal because individuals hug. But, there may often be any particular one eye that is critical ‘Oh! That hug was a bit longer’. You care, I wasn’t hugging you? ‘(defiant tone) like‘why do. … But therefore. Ja. Lapa, this relative part associated with line. Mhmm there
Bella records that she will not feel safe as being a lesbian ‘around where we stay’, detailing a number of places organised in a hierarchy of risk or security. Tasks are described, enactments of sex and sex – such as for example keeping her lesbian partner’s hand, hugging or kissing each other, dressing in ‘boyfriend jeans’, socialising in a lesbian friendly tavern – with regards to where they truly are feasible to enact (or perhaps not). She ranks these through the many dangerous found around where she remains to ‘this region of the railway line’ (the historically designated white southern suburbs), where she feels ‘comfortable’ for example. Safe to enact her lesbian sex. She employs the expression that is‘comfortable name her experience of found security, a word which Les Moran and Beverley Skeggs et al. (2004) argue talks to both a sense of staying at house, relaxed, without hazard or risk, along with coming to house. ‘Around where she stays’ will not only make reference to around her house, but towards the area that is actual she remains as well as others want it, Khayelitsha as well as other townships, domestic areas historically designated for black colored individuals. Her perspective re-inscribes a principal narrative, the binary framing of black colored areas of danger/white areas of security (JUDGE, 2015, 2018). This binary framing fundamentally ‘blackens homophobia’ (JUDGE, 2015, 2018), and so, staying in this particular framework, whitens threshold. Bella’s mode of unbelonging, of feeling like a physical human anatomy away from spot (Sarah AHMED, 2000), is accomplished through functions of surveillance and legislation by other community users. These functions of legislation and surveillance consist of ‘people taking a look at you funny’, ’that one critical eye’, to functions of real enforcement and legislation that are just alluded to within their extent. But, the empirical proof informs us included in these are beatings, rape and death (Louise POLDERS; Helen WELLS, 2004; DEEP, 2006; Juan NEL; Melanie JUDGE, 2008).
But, Bella develops a simultaneous countertop narrative to the binary framing of racialised spatialized safety/danger for lesbians in Cape Town. Her countertop narrative speaks to lesbian opposition and transgression, the enforcement that is uneven of, along with shows of community acceptance of, and solidarity with, LGBTI communities within townships. Opposition and lesbian transgression are materialised in the shape of a popular lesbian friendly tavern, Dez, situated in another township, Gugulethu. Bella additionally talks of this uneven enforcement of heteronormativities whenever she describes the varying degrees of acceptance of transgression of patriarchal heteronormativities within various areas in townships. Significantly, Bella’s countertop narrative can be revealed in exactly exactly how she by by herself ‘speaks straight straight straight straight back’ to her experts in her imagined conflict between by by herself and that one ‘critical eye’. Later on in her own meeting, Bella talks associated with the demonstrations of help, community and acceptance solidarity she’s gotten from her neighbors and her children’s teacher, regardless of, as well as times as a result of her lesbian sex.
Likewise, Sandiswa, a butch that is black whom lives in Khayelitsha, speaks regarding the help and acceptance that she’s got gotten within her area.
The neighbours, … the inventors opposite the house, they’re ok. They’re all accepting, actually. … we have actuallyn’t had any incidents where individuals are being discriminative you understand.
A range of counter narratives also troubled the dominant framing of safety being attached to ‘white zones’ at the same time. An amount of black and coloured participants argued that the noticeable existence of lesbian and homosexual people within general public areas in specific black colored townships, along side an (uneven) integration and acceptance within these communities, has added with their emotions of belonging, and of security and safety. This LGBTI presence in townships and their integration of their communities informed their mapping that is affective of in Cape Town. Sandiswa, a new black colored lesbian, talks to her perceptions of inhabiting Gugulethu:
Therefore for like … a 12 months. 5 you realize, we remained in Gugulethu, which is an area that is nice.
Plus in Philippi, the explanation it is maybe perhaps perhaps perhaps not too hectic it is because lots of people they will have turn out. You’ll find a complete great deal of homosexual individuals, lots of lesbian people located in the city. And due to that, individuals change their perception since it is some body I’m sure, it really is someone I’ve grown up with … so after they have that website link with somebody who is homosexual or lesbian, then they realize.
Both Sandiswa and Ntombi draw a connection that is direct LGBTI general public presence and their feeling of feeling less prone to lesbophobic physical physical violence, discrimination and stigma within a location. Sandiswa employs a register of general general general public visuality when she emphasizes lesbian and homosexual people’s occupation that is public ofblack) area. Its this noticeable existence of lesbians and gays that offers her a higher feeling of freedom of motion and security into the neighbourhood. Her utilization of the term that is affective, shows the bringing down of her guard and decreased need to self-manage. Ntombi echoes these sentiments, finding her feeling of security when you look at the number that is large of LGBTI individuals within her community. Ntombi contends these good perceptions of lesbians and their relationships will be the results of residing hand and hand on a daily foundation over a period of time, creating a feeling of familiarity and simplicity, of a heterosexual understanding of lesbian life. Ntombi reasons that the large numbers of freely doing LGBTI individuals speaks up to a community of affective relationships between LGBTI people, their loved ones and community people.
Taken together, this “evidence” of familiarity and ease of LGBTI individuals co-existing with heterosexual in their communities works to normalise LGBTI people’s presence and existence. This actively works to build gays and lesbians as “inside” both the township as well as the community residing here. These findings mirror the general public and noticeable presence that is gay black colored townships discussed in Leap (2005), as he describes gay presence both in general general public and private areas – homes, shebeens/taverns, trains as well as other types of general general public transport. This counter narrative challenges ideas like those posited by Elaine Salo et al. (2010), whom argue that the acceptance and security of lesbian and homosexual individuals in black colored and colored townships are influenced by their “invisibility” and status that is marginal.